Chemistry Tuition Singapore
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Chemistry Tuition Singapore | Chemistry Tuition O Level | JC Chemistry Tuition | Best Chemistry Tuition Singapore | Chemistry Tuition Assignment
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Chemistry Tuition Singapore | Chemistry Tuition O Level | JC Chemistry Tuition | Best Chemistry Tuition Singapore | Chemistry Tuition Assignment
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Chemistry Tuition Singapore | Chemistry Tuition O Level | JC Chemistry Tuition | Best Chemistry Tuition Singapore | Chemistry Tuition Assignment
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Tuition In Singapore | Many Tutors | Private Tutor | Tuition At Home | Home Tuition Singapore
You must understand the answers to abstract and challenging questions
Choose a qualified tuition teacher with the most impressive track record. Within 6 hours.
35,000 experienced tuition teachers
- Dedicated 1-to-1 private lessons by MOE teachers, tutors with PhD/Master’s/Bachelor’s, competent university undergraduates
- All with 2 to over 30 years of home tutoring experience
- We do not include non-performing private tutors in our database
- You will receive precise, clear and professional academic guidance on how to complete your homework, projects, tests and exams
Latest MOE syllabus, important exam skills
- Since 2012, our private tutors had taught students from each of the primary/secondary schools and junior colleges in Singapore. More than half of our students scored A’s for their school and national exams
- We know how to teach you, so that your grades can improve within 4 lessons
- All our pre-screened home tutors had scored A’s in the subject that they teach
- Each of them have proven track records of improving their students’ grades
Do not use "Model Answers"
- Avoid the lethal mistake of rambling completely off-point when you answer real-life exam questions that are almost NEVER the same as the questions in the “model” or “guaranteed” questions
- We asked 30 of our tutors who are/were senior MOE teachers to read and mark “model answers” that were purchased commercially. All of the teachers did not know the sources of the “model answers”, and close to 90% of the answers received C or B grades. You should therefore trust only your text books, and practice writing the answers either by yourself, with your parents/classmates, or with your tuition teacher
- Hire an expert who will teach you how to write your own formidable and relevant answers so that you can score that A
Get complete support for intensive revision
- We have achieved 100% success rates in matching students with their ideal tutors
- Our tutors teach all academic levels and tracks – primary school (Gifted Education Programme), secondary school (Express, Integrated Programme and International Baccalaureate), junior college (H1, H2 and H3), as well as polytechnic and university undergraduate modules
- Pay only for lessons conducted. There are no agency fees, no long-term contracts
- Within 6 hours after you have told us your requirements, we will show you between 4 to 10 profiles of tutors who had successfully helped their students’ grades improve
- Start lessons this week (or tomorrow)
Prepare your own powerful notes
- Learn how to customize summarized concise notes so that you can correctly prepare effectively for tests and exams
- The ability to write superior notes is a very important life-skill, whether you are in primary school, at university, or when you have started work
- Improve your observation skills, so that you can crystallize and internalize what is truly important and appropriate
- This prevents the dangerous mistake of using irrelevant information when you answer exam questions
Rigorous and thorough exam preparation
- You will practice a wide range of questions (from basic to advanced levels)
- Any knowledge gaps that you have can therefore be quickly and properly rectified, so that you do not make the same mistakes during the exams
- Understand more, and rote-learn less. Memorizing repetitively works only if you already accurately understand the core concepts
- Otherwise, when the exam question is testing your advanced application skills, you will have great difficulty in analytically applying the knowledge that you rote-learned
Hiring The Right Tutor Can Help You Score 10 to 30 More Marks Quickly
Profiles of featured Chemistry tuition teachers
Mr GN has 11 years of Chemistry tuition experience. He was Head of Science at a group of leading tuition centres where he taught for 7 years. Mr GN has a Bachelor’s in Biochemistry from NUS (First Class Honours). His private tuition students attended Yuan Ching Secondary School, Anglo-Chinese School (Independent), St Margaret’s Secondary School, Tampines Meridian Junior College, Hwa Chong Institution, and Eunoia Junior College.
Ms PRT has 12 years of Chemistry tuition experience. She has a Master’s in Chemistry from NUS. Her Bachelor’s in Biochemical Engineering was from NTU (2nd Upper Class Honours). Ms PRT was Head of Science at a group of tuition centres, where she taught for 9 years. Ms PRT’s private tuition students attended Chua Chu Kang Secondary School, Fuchun Secondary School, Hai Sing Catholic School, Methodist Girls’ School (Secondary) IB programme, Dunman High School, and Tampines Meridian Junior College.
Ms CFH has 9 years of Chemistry tuition experience. She has a PhD in Chemistry from Imperial College London. Ms CFH’s Bachelor’s in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering was from NUS (First Class Honours). Ms CFH taught at tuition centres for 7 years. Her private tuition students attended Crescent Girls’ School, Bowen Secondary School, Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road), Hwa Chong Institution, Raffles Institution, and National Junior College.
Ms PYC has 5 years of Chemistry tuition experience. She has a Bachelor’s in Biochemical Engineering from NTU. Ms PYC taught at a tuition centre for 3 years. Her private tuition students attended St Hilda’s Secondary School, Meridian Secondary School, Hougang Secondary School, Nanyang Junior College, Temasek Junior College, and Eunoia Junior College.
Mr EAB has 6 years of Chemistry tuition experience. He has a Bachelor’s in Chemistry from NUS. Mr EAB’s private tuition students attended Paya Lebar Methodist Girls’ School (Secondary), Bedok South Secondary School, Commonwealth Secondary School, Guangyang Secondary School, Loyang View Secondary School, and Anglo-Chinese Junior College.
Mr AWY has 8 years of Chemistry tuition experience. He is NIE-trained, and taught at a junior college for 7 years. Mr AWY has a Bachelor’s in Chemistry from NUS (Honours). His private tuition students attended River Valley High School, Yishun Innova Junior College, Eunoia Junior College, Anderson Serangoon Junior College, Victoria Junior College, and National Junior College.
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Ms CWE has 10 years of Chemistry tuition experience. She has a PhD in Chemistry from Princeton University. Ms CWE’s Bachelor’s in Materials Chemistry was from NUS (First Class Honours). Her private tuition students attended Singapore Chinese Girls’ School. Raffles Girls’ School (Secondary) Integrated Programme, Montfort Secondary School, National Junior College, Hwa Chong Institution, and Dunman High School.
Ms EJY has 6 years of Chemistry tuition experience. She has a Master’s in Chemical Engineering Sciences from NUS, and a Bachelor’s in Analytical Chemistry from NUS (2nd Upper Class Honours). Ms EJY’s private tuition students attended St Andrew’s Secondary School, Victoria School, Dunman High School Integrated Programme, National Junior College, Eunoia Junior College, and Anglo-Chinese Junior College.
Ms TSY has 14 years of Chemistry tuition experience. She is NIE-trained, and taught at junior colleges for 7 years. Ms TSY has a Bachelor’s in Chemistry and Biological Chemistry from NTU (Honours). Her private tuition students attended Yishun Innova Junior College, National Junior College, Hwa Chong Institution, Anderson Serangoon Junior College, Catholic Junior College, and River Valley High School.
Mr FTH has 4 years of Chemistry tuition experience. He has a Bachelor’s in Chemical Engineering, and taught at a tuition centre for 2 years. Mr FTH’s private tuition students attended CHIJ St Nicholas Girls’ School, Yishun Secondary School, Swiss Cottage Secondary School, Anderson Serangoon Junior College, St Andrew’s Junior College, and Victoria Junior College.
Mr CDS has 9 years of Chemistry tuition experience. He has a Bachelor’s in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering from NTU (2nd Upper Class Honours). Mr CDS was an MOE contract teacher for 3 years. His private tuition students attended CHIJ Secondary (Toa Payoh), Fairfield Methodist School (Secondary), Riverside Secondary School, Tampines Meridian Junior College, St Joseph’s Institution, and Nanyang Junior College.
Ms NYL has 6 years of Chemistry tuition experience. She has a Bachelor’s in Chemical Engineering from NTU. Ms NYL taught at a tuition centre for 4 years. Her private tuition students attended Tampines Secondary School, Anglo-Chinese School (Independent), Zhenghua Secondary School, Anderson Serangoon Junior College, National Junior College, and Tampines Meridian Junior College.
Mr DLJ has 14 years of Chemistry tuition experience. He has a Master’s in Chemistry from Northwestern University. His Bachelor’s in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering was from NTU (First Class Honours). Mr DLJ was an MOE contract teacher for 2 years and taught at leading tuition centres for 9 years. Mr DLJ’s private tuition students attended St Gabriel’s Secondary School, Victoria School Integrated Programme, Hai Sing Catholic School, Anglo-Chinese Junior College, National Junior College, and Raffles Institution.
Ms JRM has 11 years of Chemistry tuition experience. She was a Post-doctoral Fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Her PhD in Chemistry was from MIT, and her Bachelor’s in Medicinal Chemistry was from NUS (First Class Honours). Ms JRM’s private tuition students attended River Valley High School Integrated Programme, Paya Lebar Methodist Girls’ School (Secondary), Nanyang Girls’ High School Integrated Programme, Anglo-Chinese Junior College, Victoria Junior College, and Dunman High School.
Mr YPW has 4 years of Chemistry tuition experience. He has a Bachelor’s in Chemical Engineering from NTU (Honours). Mr YPW taught at a leading tuition centre for 2 years. His private tuition students attended Tanglin Secondary School, Bowen Secondary School, Methodist Girls’ School (Secondary), Temasek Junior College, Yishun Innova Junior College, and Victoria Junior College.
Ms CYF has 13 years of Chemistry tuition experience. She has a Bachelor’s in Chemistry from NUS. Ms CYF’s private tuition students attended Kent Ridge Secondary School, Gan Eng Seng School, River Valley High School Integrated Programme, Nanyang Junior College, Anglo-Chinese Junior College, and St Andrew’s Junior College.
Mr KSB has 9 years of Chemistry tuition experience. He has a Bachelor’s in Chemistry from NTU. Mr KSB was an MOE contract teacher for 2 years. Mr KSB’s private tuition students attended Christ Church Secondary School, Kuo Chuan Presbyterian Secondary School, Singapore Chinese Girls’ School, Anglo-Chinese Junior College, Nanyang Junior College, and River Valley High School.
Mr SE has 8 years of Chemistry tuition experience. He has a Bachelor’s in Chemistry and Biological Chemistry from NTU (Honours). Mr SE’s private tuition students attended CHIJ St Nicholas Girls’ School Integrated Programme, Holy Innocents’ High School, Yuhua Secondary School, Catholic Junior College, St Joseph’s Institution, and Victoria Junior College.
Mr FJE has 9 years of Chemistry tuition experience. He has a Master’s in Chemistry from the California Institute of Technology. Mr FJE’s Bachelor’s in Materials Chemistry was from NUS (First Class Honours). His private tuition students attended CHIJ St Nicholas Girls’ School, Catholic High School, Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road), Hwa Chong Institution, Raffles Institution, and National Junior College.
Ms CYT has 15 years of Chemistry tuition experience. She has a Bachelor’s in Chemical Engineering from NTU (2nd Upper Class Honours). Ms CYT was an MOE contract teacher for 2 years and taught at tuition centres for 7 years. Ms CYT’s private tuition students attended Ping Yi Secondary School, Unity Secondary School, CHIJ St Nicholas Girls’ School, Anderson Serangoon Junior College, Dunman High School, and National Junior College.
Mr FB has 4 years of Chemistry tuition experience. He is NIE-trained, and taught at MOE schools for 12 years. Mr FB has a Bachelor’s in Environment and Energy Chemistry from NUS. His private tuition students attended Westwood Secondary School, Springfield Secondary School, Nan Chiau High School, St Anthony’s Canossian Secondary School, Paya Lebar Methodist Girls’ School (Secondary), and Ngee Ann Secondary School.
Ms LMJ has 7 years of Chemistry tuition experience. She is NIE-trained and taught at MOE schools for 9 years. Ms LMJ’s Bachelor’s in Chemistry was from NUS (Honours). Her private tuition students attended St Andrew’s Secondary School, Loyang View Secondary School, Sembawang Secondary School, Nanyang Girls’ High School Integrated Programme, Naval Base Secondary School, and Victoria School.
Ms AKY has 10 years of Chemistry tuition experience. She has a Master’s in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering from NTU. Her Bachelor’s in Chemistry was from NTU (2nd Upper Class Honours). Ms AKY was an MOE contract teacher for 2 years. Her private tuition students attended Juying Secondary School, Deyi Secondary School, Raffles Girls’ School (Secondary) Integrated Programme, Singapore Chinese Girls’ Secondary School Integrated Programme, Eunoia Junior College, and Hwa Chong Institution.
Mr IT has 8 years of Chemistry tuition experience. He has a Master’s in Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences from NUS. His Bachelor’s in Chemistry was from Princeton University. Mr IT’s private tuition students attended Dunman High School Integrated Programme, Maris Stella High School, Nanyang Girls’ High School Integrated Programme, Raffles Girls’ School (Secondary) Integrated Programme, St Gabriel’s Secondary School, and Victoria School Integrated Programme.
Ms OHS has 5 years of Chemistry tuition experience. She has a Master’s in Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences from NUS. Her Bachelor’s in Medicinal Chemistry was from NUS (2nd Upper Class Honours). Ms OHS’s private tuition students attended St Anthony’s Canossian Secondary School, River Valley High School Integrated Programme, Anglican High School, Eunoia Junior College, Tampines Meridian Junior College, and Jurong Pioneer Junior College.
Ms JPK has 9 years of Chemistry tuition experience. She has a Bachelor’s in Chemical Engineering from NTU. Ms JPK was an MOE contract teacher for 2 years and taught at tuition centres for 5 years. Ms JPK’s private tuition students attended Fuchun Secondary School, Naval Base Secondary School, CHIJ St Nicholas Girls’ School, Anglo-Chinese Junior College, Jurong Pioneer Junior College, and Victoria Junior College.
Ms CL has 14 years of Chemistry tuition experience. She has a Master’s in Materials Chemistry from NUS. Her Bachelor’s in Nanoscience Chemistry was from NUS (2nd Upper Class Honours). Ms CL wrote the Chemistry secondary school and junior college curriculum content for a group of tuition centres, where she taught for 7 years. Ms CL’s private tuition students attended CHIJ St Theresa’s Convent, Catholic High School, Yusof Ishak Secondary School, Raffles Institution (Secondary) Integrated Programme, Jurong Pioneer Junior College, and St Andrew’s Junior College.
Ms ACR has 12 years of Chemistry tuition experience. She is NIE-trained and taught at MOE schools for 7 years. Ms ARC has a Bachelor’s in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering from NTU (2nd Upper Class Honours). Her private tuition students attended Maris Stella High School, CHIJ St Joseph’s Convent, Peicai Secondary School, Northland Secondary School, Marsiling Secondary School, and Jurong West Secondary School.
Mr EAW has 11 years of Chemistry tuition experience. He has a Bachelor’s in Chemistry from NTU. Mr EAW was an MOE contract teacher for 3 years, and taught at tuition centres for 4 years. Mr EAW’s private tuition students attended Serangoon Garden Secondary School, New Town Secondary School, Catholic High School, Eunoia Junior College, Catholic Junior College, and Raffles Institution.
Mr LMY has 3 years of Chemistry tuition experience. He has a Bachelor’s in Biomedical Engineering from NTU (Honours). Mr LMY’s private tuition students attended Bartley Secondary School, Cedar Girls’ Secondary School, Evergreen Secondary School, St Andrew’s Junior College, River Valley High School, and Yishun Innova Junior College.
Mr BBY has 4 years of Chemistry tuition experience. He has a Bachelor’s in Chemistry from NUS. Mr BBY taught at a tuition centre for 1 year. His private tuition students attended Queensway Secondary School, Tanjong Katong Girls’ School, Cedar Girls’ Secondary School Integrated Programme, Temasek Junior College, Anderson Serangoon Junior College, and Catholic Junior College.
Mr DDW has 9 years of Chemistry tuition experience. He has a PhD in Chemistry from Oxford University. Mr SK’s Bachelor’s in Analytical Chemistry was from NUS (First Class Honours). Mr DDW’s private tuition students attended St Joseph’s Institution, Singapore Chinese Girls’ Secondary School Integrated Programme, NUS High School of Mathematics and Science, National Junior College, Eunoia Junior College, and Hwa Chong Institution.
Ms FTR has 6 years of Chemistry tuition experience. She is NIE-trained, and taught at MOE schools for 9 years. Ms FTR’s Bachelor’s in Chemical Engineering was from NTU (2nd Upper Class Honours). Ms FTR’s private tuition students attended Jurongville Secondary School, Damai Secondary School, CHIJ St Theresa’s Convent, Kuo Chuan Presbyterian Secondary School, NUS High School of Mathematics and Science, and Singapore Chinese Girls’ Secondary School Integrated Programme.
Ms VCN has 8 years of Chemistry tutoring experience. She was the Head of Science at a group of tuition centres, where she taught for 6 years. Ms VCN has a PhD in Applied Chemistry from Stanford University. Her Bachelor’s in Chemistry was from NUS (First Class Honours). Ms VCN’s home tuition students attended Cedar Girls’ Secondary School, NUS High School of Mathematics and Science, Raffles Institution (Secondary) Integrated Programme, National Junior College, Hwa Chong Institution, and Anglo-Chinese Junior College.
Ms RLY has 3 years of Chemistry tuition experience. She has a Bachelor’s in Materials Chemistry from NUS (2nd Upper Class Honours). Ms RLY taught at a leading tuition centre for 2 years. Her private tuition students attended Raffles Girls’ School (Secondary), Ngee Ann Secondary School, Methodist Girls’ School (Secondary), Anglo-Chinese Junior College, Temasek Junior College, and Victoria Junior College.
Mr KT has 14 years of Chemistry tuition experience. He is NIE-trained and taught at MOE schools for 8 years. Mr KT has a Bachelor’s in Chemical Engineering from NUS (2nd Upper Class Honours). His home tuition students attended CHIJ Katong Convent, Dunman High School Integrated Programme, Methodist Girls’ School (Secondary) IB programme, Eunoia Junior College, National Junior College, and Victoria Junior College.
Hiring The Right Tutor Can Help You Score 10 to 30 More Marks Quickly
Your Chemistry tuition teacher will clearly explain to you:
- Methods of purification and analysis
- Methods of separation and purification for the components of mixtures
- Use of a suitable solvent, filtration and crystallisation or evaporation
- Distillation and fractional distillation
- Use of a separating funnel
- Paper chromatography
- Separation and purification methods
- Kinetic particle theory
- Atomic structure
- Structure and properties of materials
- Ionic bonding
- Covalent bonding
- Metallic bonding
- The relative charges and approximate relative masses of a proton, a neutron and an electron
- The structure of an atom as containing protons and neutrons (nucleons) in the nucleus and electrons arranged in shells (energy levels)
- Proton (atomic) number and nucleon (mass) number
- The numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons in atoms and ions given proton and nucleon numbers
- Cations: linked to the reactivity series
- Anions: halides, hydroxides and sulfates (e.g. aqueous copper(II) sulfate and dilute sodium chloride solution (as essentially the electrolysis of water))
- Concentration effects (as in the electrolysis of concentrated and dilute aqueous sodium chloride)
- Electrolysis of aqueous copper(II) sulfate with copper electrodes as a means of purifying copper
- The electroplating of metals, e.g. copper plating
- Hydrogen, derived from water or hydrocarbons, as a potential fuel, reacting with oxygen to generate electricity directly in a fuel cell
- Effect of concentration, pressure, particle size and temperature on the speeds of reactions and explain these effects in terms of collisions between reacting particles
- The term catalyst and describe the effect of catalysts (including enzymes) on the speeds of reactions
- Pathways with lower activation energies account for the increase in speeds of reactions
- Hydrolysis on treatment with aqueous alkali or acid
- Reduction to amines with lithium aluminium hydride
- Acid/base properties of amino acids and the formation of zwitterions
- Predict qualitatively how the value of an electrode potential varies with the concentration of the aqueous ion
- Predict the identity of the substance liberated during electrolysis from the state of electrolyte (molten or aqueous), position in the redox series (electrode potential) and concentration
- From a given electronic configuration, the likely oxidation states of a transition element
- Ligand and complex as exemplified by the complexes of copper(II) ions with water, ammonia and chloride ions as ligands
- Energy levels in octahedral complexes
- Use calculators to evaluate logarithms, squares, square roots, and reciprocals
- Estimate orders of magnitude
- Alkanes (exemplified by ethane)
- Free-radical substitution reactions
- Alkenes (exemplified by ethene)
- Electrophilic addition, including Markovnikov’s rule
- Reduction and oxidation reactions
- Arenes (exemplified by benzene and methylbenzene)
- Influence of delocalised π electrons on structure and properties
- Electrophilic substitution reactions
- Oxidation of side-chain
- Hydrocarbons as fuels
- Electrophilic addition of water/steam, hydrogen halides and halogens
- Reduction via catalytic hydrogenation (catalytic addition of hydrogen)
- Oxidation by cold, alkaline solution of manganate(VII) ions to form the diol
- Oxidation by hot, acidified solution of manganate(VII) ions leading to the rupture of the carbon-to-carbon double bond in order to determine the position of alkene linkages in larger molecules
- Markovnikov’s rule, hydrogen halides to unsymmetrical alkenes, composition of products, stability of carbocation intermediates
- Friedel-Crafts alkylation with halogenoalkanes
- Mechanism of electrophilic substitution in arenes, using the mono-bromination of benzene
- Delocalisation of electrons in arenes in such reactions
- Chemistry of the alkyl side-chain of benzene ring as exemplified by the following reactions of methylbenzene
- Free-radical substitution by chlorine and by bromine
- Complete oxidation to give benzoic acid
- Liquid-liquid (miscible and immiscible)
- Paper chromatograms including comparison with ‘known’ samples and the use of Rf values
- Use locating agents in the chromatography of colourless compounds
- Melting point and boiling point data the identities of substances and their purity
- Formation of a covalent bond by the sharing of a pair of electrons in order to gain the electronic configuration of a noble gas
- The arrangement of electrons in other covalent molecules
- The physical properties (including electrical property) of covalent substances to their structure and bonding
- Metals as a lattice of positive ions in a ‘sea of electrons’
- Electrical conductivity of metals to the mobility of the electrons in the structure
- Enthalpy change in terms of exothermic (∆H negative) and endothermic
- (∆H positive) reactions
- Energy changes by energy profile diagrams, including reaction enthalpy changes and activation energies
- Bond breaking as an endothermic process and bond making as an exothermic process
- Overall enthalpy changes in terms of the energy changes associated with the breaking and making of covalent bonds
- Formation of amines as exemplified by ethylamine (through amide and nitrile reduction
- Basicity of primary, secondary and tertiary amines in the gaseous phase (interpret as Lewis bases)
- Relative basicities of ammonia, ethylamine and phenylamine in aqueous medium
- Reaction of phenylamine with aqueous bromine
- Delocalisation of the lone pair of electrons on nitrogen
- Transition element, in terms of d block elements forming one or more stable ions with partially filled d subshells
- Electronic configuration of a first row transition element and its ions
- Atomic radii and first ionisation energies of the transition elements are relatively invariant
- Contrast, qualitatively, the melting point and density of the transition elements with those of calcium as a typical s block element
- Tendency of transition elements to have variable oxidation states
- Determine and interpret the slope and intercept of a linear graph
- Choose by inspection a straight line that will serve as the ‘least bad’ linear model for a set of data presented graphically
- Understand (i) the slope of a tangent to a curve as a measure of rate of change, (ii) the ‘area’ below a curve where the area has physical significance, e.g. Boltzmann distribution curves
- Comprehend how to handle numerical work so that significant figures are neither lost unnecessarily nor used beyond what is justified
- General unreactivity of alkanes, including towards polar reagents
- Chemistry of alkanes as exemplified by the following reactions of ethane
- Free-radical substitution by chlorine and by bromine
- Free-radical substitution with particular reference to the initiation, propagation and termination reactions
- General reactivity of alkenes towards electrophilic reagents/electrophiles
- Chemistry of alkenes
- Delocalisation of π electrons, the difference between benzene and alkene:
- Reactivity towards electrophiles
- Preference of benzene to undergo substitution rather than addition reaction
- Chemistry of the benzene ring as exemplified by the following reactions of benzene and methylbenzene
- Electrophilic substitution reactions with chlorine and with bromine
- The use of Lewis acid as catalysts
- Nitration with concentrated nitric acid
- Predict whether halogenation will occur in the side-chain or aromatic nucleus in arenes depending on reaction conditions
- Positions of substitution in the electrophilic substitution reactions of monosubstituted arenes
- Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and unburnt hydrocarbons arising from the internal combustion engine and of their catalytic removal
- Gases that contribute to the enhanced greenhouse effect
- Petroleum is a finite resource and the importance of recycling
- Nucleophilic substitution
- Relative strength of the C-Hal bond
- Unreactivity of halogenoarenes
- Chemistry of halogenoalkanes
- Nucleophilic substitution reactions of bromoethane: hydrolysis; formation of nitriles; formation of primary amines by reaction with ammonia
- Elimination of hydrogen bromide from 2-bromopropane
Our 35,000 tutors have helped students of all abilities get their A's. It's your turn now.
Do you find yourself struggling to keep motivated when studying?
Maintaining the momentum to study for long periods of time can be difficult.
Whether you are a primary school student preparing for the all-important PSLE, or are in secondary school/JC trying to motivate yourself to complete your revisions for the GCE O/A Levels, figuring out how to stay focused and avoid distractions while studying are challenges that all of us face.
Experts from Improve Grades have compiled a list of 10 practical tools and proven techniques to help keep you focused on your learning, and to understand the progress you are making.
You will get the motivation that you need in order to keep working hard on your studies.
Every one of these techniques can be adapted to suit you and your learning preference and style.
We therefore encourage you to try out a few of them to see which methods benefit you the most.
- SET CLEAR, PRECISE GOALS
One of the key motivations behind being able to stay focused while studying is to understand exactly why you want to study in the first place.
Your overall objective is “I want to do well in my exams”, and you need to be precise with the details of how you go about achieving it.
If you want to obtain a certain grade, write it down.
If you are aiming to attend a particular university, include that in your medium-term goals.
Anything that you can do to make your goals as vivid and real as possible will make them more impactful.
Some examples of goals that you may want to achieve can include:
“I want to achieve [insert grades] in my A-Levels so I can study [subject] at [insert name of dream university].”
“My close friends/cousins are aiming for [name of school/course]. I want to be with them, so I need to achieve similar grades.”
“I want to develop my [insert skill] so that I am better prepared for the workplace and can buy a BTO within 5 years after graduating from university.”
“I want to cultivate correct study habits. Exam questions are always very tricky, and I want to be able to answer as many exam questions as I can.”
Whatever your goals are, write each of them down and keep the list visible and prominently displayed near your workspace.
This way, you can remind yourself of your motivations for studying each time you feel that your concentration and enthusiasm are slipping.
- CREATE A STUDY SCHEDULE
Have you ever found yourself sitting down at your desk or table, opening your laptop and then thinking “now what?”
One of the most important components of helping you to stay focused on your studies and therefore achieve your goals is to create and implement a study schedule that helps you establish a routine.
At any time in our lives, not having a disciplined school timetable will lead us to inefficient ways of managing our time.
For some, a timetable has been a chance to fit in studying around a busy schedule of other commitments like enrichment lessons or CCA, while others who do not have a timetable have just simply struggled to manage their own time.
Setting a study timetable is an excellent way to track your progress towards your goals, establish a routine, as well as provide you with a sense of accomplishment at the end of your day of studies.
Therefore, even if you cannot always adhere to your scheduled daily routine, you know you can still add some productive predictability to your day when you have an organized study schedule.
Here are our top tips to make study schedule that fits in around your lifestyle:
A. Include all your goals/deadlines – Are you studying for upcoming exams? Or perhaps it is the school holidays now, and you just need an interim timetable until you return to school? Whatever your deadlines/objectives are, make sure you create a schedule with all these important dates in mind – it gives you a final date and goal to aim for;
B. Add in “play”’ time – One of the most important factors that help you to stay focused on your studies is to allow yourself a healthy study-life balance. Schedule regular breaks, days off, and free time in the evenings, so that you can have enough time to relax and recharge when doing the things you love;
C. Colour-code subjects and topics – Colour-coding your timetable is an effective way to ensure that you are spending enough time on each subject or topic. Highlighting each subject or topic in a different colour will help you – visually – see if you are actually balancing out your studying and revision in the ways that you ought to.
- CREATE A STUDY ROUTINE
As well as creating a study schedule, it is also important to create a study routine that helps get your mind into the flow and focus of studying.
A good place to start is to create a pre-study routine, such as setting up your desk space, going for a brief walk around your neighbourhood, creating a daily to-do list, or doing a 10-minute yoga session to focus your mind.
Taking this time in these ways to set up your mind to be prepared for your studies will help you to physically prepare you for a study session.
It will also help to train your brain to recognise and transition into a focused state more effortlessly.
The more you practice these routines before sitting down to study, the more association your brain will have with needing to focus and motivate you.
As a result, you will use your time more effectively, spending less time trying to get into the flow of your work.
You’ll stay more focused during your set study times, ultimately resulting in a more effective and efficient learning session.
- SHARE YOUR STUDY SCHEDULE WITH YOUR FAMILY AND CLOSE FRIENDS
Once you have created your schedule and developed your pre-study routines to help you get into the mood for studying, you have to share your schedule with your family and close friends.
This helps you avoid being distracted during the moments when you want to focus on studying and revising.
There is also a greater benefit to sharing your schedule in this way: you’ll gain more accountability for your work.
By making a pre-commitment to your family and close friends about when you’ll be studying, you will be more likely to stick to your schedule.
It is just another way to help you stay focused and alert while studying.
Have a WhatsApp/Telegram group with your friends?
Encourage everyone to share screenshots of their study schedules so you know when not to message and distract each other.
Even better, see if you can try and negotiate some slots when your timetables are in sync, so you have set periods of free time to chat with one another.
This way, you can avoid getting distracted and not have to worry about missing out on any fun time together.
- BLOCK OUT ALL POSSIBLE DISTRACTIONS
Did you know that, on average, it takes us 23 minutes to refocus on our work after being interrupted?
If – like most of us – you find yourself picking up your phone as soon as you see the screen flash, or checking your emails as a new alert pops up, you’ll know that phones, apps and websites can put an end to all of the productivity you need to have.
Turning off your notifications, or – even better – putting your electronic devices completely out of sight/on flight mode will help keep your mind away from all distractions and help you to stay focused on your studies.
According to a recent research project carried out by Harvard University, when we receive a social media notification, our brain sends the chemical dopamine along our reward pathways, making us feel good.
Dopamine is associated with all the things we love, including food, exercise, and gaming. And more recently, social media.
Over time, these dopamine highs become addictive, and we crave that positive feeling more.
This then causes our attention spans (for studying) to begin to shorten, as we find ourselves looking at our phones more and more.
Therefore, eliminating these transient “feel-good” distractions at periods of time when we need to focus can help us to train our brains to stay focused for longer periods of time.
It can also help us avoid becoming addicted to our smartphones and other electronic devices.
Of course, we can’t eliminate all distractions.
Sometimes, it can be easy enough to zone out and find yourself staring at the wall for a few moments.
But hiding anything that you associate with fun, relaxation, or socialising, will really help you to keep on-track and not get distracted.
- TRY THE POMODORO TECHNIQUE
The Pomodoro Technique is a time management method based on 25-minute stretches of focused work broken by five-minute breaks.
Longer breaks – typically 15 to 30 minutes – are taken after four consecutive work intervals.
Each work interval is called a pomodoro, the Italian word for tomato (plural: pomodori).
Its premise is very simple: select a task to work on, set a timer, work (completely uninterrupted) until it rings, and then take a short break.
Usually, it is recommended that you study for 25 minutes and have 5 minutes off, and then repeat until the task is completed.
But it really comes down to what works best for you.
It’s been found that short breaks increase our ability to concentrate, allowing your brain help to quickly restore its energy and focus, and then prepare for the next stint of focus time.
The Pomodoro Technique will ensure your overall study sessions are more focused and ultimately, effective.
But beyond helping you to stay motivated while studying, the Pomodoro Technique also gives you better awareness of the time it takes you to complete different tasks, allowing you to build a more effective study schedule.
You can count up how many “durations/slots” of studying you’ve completed in this way, and gain a more accurate judgement of how long it has actually taken.
Not convinced? Try timing yourself completing a task and see how long it takes.
Then, try completing a similar task using the Pomodoro Technique and see which method takes the least amount of time. You might just be surprised!
Remember, the key to the success of the Pomodoro Technique is to work straight through the targeted time duration, without interruption.
This means no replying to Instagram messages, no hopping off to watch TikTok.
Just straight-up study time.
- KEEP A RECORD OF ALL THE TASKS THAT YOU HAVE COMPLETED
Another great way to keep focused while studying is to regularly remind yourself of all the work you’ve completed so far.
Often, studying, especially at the start of a long stint of revision, can feel like a huge, tiring task.
However, if you can monitor your progress as you go, and keep a record of everything you’ve achieved, you should be able to remain focused – propelled by the sense of accomplishment.
There are two main reasons why tracking your task completion is so beneficial:
- It’s easy to monitor if you are meeting the objectives set out in your study schedule
- Seeing your progress is really important to boosting your morale and helping you to keep motivated
Sometimes, simply studying by itself can be an activity which is not always easy to measure.
However, if you keep track of all the tasks you’ve completed, you will have a much better idea of progression and how much closer you are moving towards your goals.
On top of this, you will be reminded of how productive you have been.
This will help in the long-term of keeping you focused on your studies and goals.
- EXERCISE REGULARLY
We know how beneficial exercise is for our physical health, but did you know the effects it can have on your brain, its ability to stay focused, and retain new information?
Studies have shown that regular exercise is not beneficial only for your body, but also your brain.
Research suggests that in the short-term, increasing blood flow to the brain with exercise can help you to improve your focus for up to two or even three hours!
Exercising regularly has been shown to improve our overall mood and sleep, while reducing symptoms of stress and anxiety – all of which can affect our cognitive function and ability to concentrate.
To start experiencing the benefits of exercise, begin with introducing a few brisk walks around your neighbourhood to get your heartrate up.
We suggest that you start with a short walk before a study session, to get the blood flowing to your brain, as well as during the day to stimulate you during moments when you might feel sluggish/sleepy.
Eventually, you can also look at running, or even start aerobics exercises.
Yoga can also be great at helping you to de-stress and stretch out at the end of the day, while activities like Pilates and weight-training can strengthen your core and other essential muscles.
- GIVE YOURSELF REGULAR REWARDS
When used correctly, giving yourself small but regular rewards can help you to stay focused while studying and maintain concentration for longer periods of time.
You can use this positive reinforcement while studying, by rewarding yourself whenever you meet a study goal, complete a particular project, or simply after spending a long period of time sitting at your desk working hard.
No matter what it is you are rewarding, the more you associate good outcomes with studying, the more motivated you will feel when you next sit down to study.
For them to be effective, rewards need to be something you enjoy.
Now, just because some of your friends may see a trip to the supermarket as a reward, others may see it as a chore.
Make sure you choose something that you really enjoy: this can be a day off at the end of a hard week, or a break to watch your favourite TV show at the end of the study session – so you are compelled to repeat the behaviour in the future.
One thing to keep in mind with rewards is the distinction between using internal and external rewards.
External rewards are physical things or experiences that you may rewards yourself to, such as a nice cup of tea, or a day off.
Meanwhile, internal rewards refer to a particular emotion or internal state of mind, such as feeling of pride after completing a particular piece of work.
Interestingly, psychological studies have found that if the long run, internal rewards are more effective than external rewards in motivating students to keep studying because you gain a chemical release from the task.
Therefore, as good as an external reward may be at helping you stay motivated, allow yourself to soak up all those positive feelings that are also associated with learning.
- REVIEW YOUR STUDY METHODS
As with everything in life, you will discover that reviewing things is the best way to track progress and make improvements.
When it comes to checking in on your study goals and progress, you should fit time in to review and monitor how effective the tools and techniques you are using are at helping you to reach them.
The more effective your study tools are, the more motivated you will feel, and more likely to stay focused during your studies.
Taking five minutes at the end of each week, month, or even year, to review your habits, routines and progress can help you identify patterns in your workflow and optimise the areas which are not as beneficial as you would have hoped they may be.
Some students like to use SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis to monitor their strengths and weaknesses, while others like to run through every method they use and will have an intuition about whether it has been effective or not.
Of course, objectively, completing end of module tests and past papers can be another great way to see if your studying is working.
Marking yourself will help you to identify any areas for improvement, giving you a next set of goals to focus on.
Many of us are facing challenges that can be stressful, overwhelming, and cause strong emotions in adults and children.
Getting bad grades in school, or not belonging to preferred groups of friends can make us feel isolated and lonely, and can increase stress and anxiety.
Stress occurs when you feel like the demands placed on you – such as school, or relationships – exceed your ability to cope.
It can be a reaction to a temporary situation, such as waiting for a bus that is already very late, or it can last a longer time if you’re dealing with problems in school or with relationships, the illness of a loved one, or other significant situations.
While some stress can be beneficial, such as stress that motivates you to perform well in a sporting event, untreated stress over the longer term is linked to serious health concerns including depression, heart disease, obesity, and a weakened immune system.
After a traumatic event, we may start to develop strong and lingering reactions.
We may go through any of these stages (not necessarily in this same order of occurrence):
- Changes in appetite (eating much more or much less than usual)
- Changes in quality of sleep (much shorter, much longer, and not enough deep, restful sleep. Increased frequency of nightmares)
- Feelings of frustration, anger, sadness, disbelief, shock, numbness, anxiety, grief, nervousness, excessive worry, or depression
- Difficulty in focusing and making decisions
Here are some healthy ways you can deal with stress:
- Take breaks from watching, listening to or reading news stories. Reduce your time on social media. It is good to keep updated, but sometimes the latest developments in your friends’ lives or in your community might be upsetting. Consider limiting access to news and social media to just two or three times a day, and try to disconnect your mind from the phone, TV and electronic devices for a while. This can help you calm down
- List the projects and commitments that are making you feel overwhelmed. Identify which commitments are priorities, and cut back on anything that is nonessential. Setting limits on nonessential obligations is important to reducing chronic stress
- Try to do some activities that you enjoy. Make time to unwind
- Find a distraction. Give yourself a break when you are feeling stressed out. Eat well-balanced meals, get enough sleep and find more ways to take better care of your physical and mental health
- When you feel anxious, take deep breaths, stretch or meditate. Find a comfortable place to sit and relax your neck and shoulders. Place one hand over your heart and the other across your belly. Inhale and exhale through your nose, paying attention to how your chest and stomach move as you breathe. Try doing this exercise 3 times a day for 5 minutes, or whenever you have overwhelming thoughts
- Be nice to yourself, to those around you, and to those who need words of encouragement more than you do. Realizing you have the power to make someone’s day better can keep negative thoughts from taking over. It also gives you something productive to focus on instead of your seemingly never-ending stream of sad thoughts. It can be hard to start something new when you are overwhelmed by your thoughts. If finding a distraction feels daunting, try setting aside a small chunk of time – say 30 minutes – every day or every other day. Use this time to either explore potential distractions or dabble in existing ones
- Cannot stop thinking about someone you envy? Instead of having it ruin your day, let these feelings help you make better choices. The next time you are visited by the green-eyed monster, be proactive and jot down ways you can go about reaching your goals. This will get help you channel your energy into taking actionable steps
- The way you respond to your thoughts can sometimes keep you in a downward spiral of negativity and despondence. Look at yourself in the mirror and make a list of at least 10 achievements (big or small) that you had this past week, and note your role in them
- Exercise regularly, even if the only thing you feel like doing is walking a maximum of 200 metres around your home. Just being out there with a new view – away from the physical environment that is causing you to feel anxious – can often be enough for your tired mind to take a much-needed break. A brisk walk or other aerobic activity can increase your energy and concentration levels, and lessen feelings of anxiety. Physical activity increases your body’s production of good-feeling endorphins and decreases the production of stress hormones
- Talk to others. Sometimes, even a short chat with a complete stranger or a trusted friend/relative can lift our moods
- Look at the bigger picture. How will all the issues floating around in your mind affect you 5 or 20 years from now? Will anyone still really care that you forgot to buy enough ice for the lemon tea for the class party? Don’t let minor issues turn into significant hurdles.
When some of us were still students, we intensely hated studying with an almost physical passion.
It was extremely hard just to sit down and open a text book.
Because it seemed so pointless. We knew that no matter how many times we read the text book, we would remember almost nothing.
And re-reading over and over and over again in the hope something will stick was just … painful.
It wasn’t until years later that we discovered what an incredible memory that we all have.
The problem was not that we had a “bad” memory – we had just never been taught how to use what we had.
Let us now go through some concrete steps of how you can memorize better, and how you can pay closer attention even when you don’t enjoy the subject or topic:
- THE #1 MISTAKE OF MEMORIZATION
Memory is not a physical part of your brain.
It’s a mental function or a skill that can be learned and improved.
Think about this: If you have never learned to ride a bicycle, why should you be surprised when you keep falling over?
Therefore, if you have never learned proper memorization techniques, why should you expect to remember anything quickly and effectively?
Memory is a skill.
Learning to ride a bicycle does not require a miracle.
Neither does the ability to remember and memorize better.
- HOW MEMORIZATION SHOULD WORK
The 3 R’s of Remembering are:
Most people rely on their “unconscious” memory.
They do not intentionally do anything in their mind to memorize new things – they just hope they will be able to remember it almost by magic.
The 3 R’s are simple to understand, but it is better to think of memorization in an even simpler way: Memorization is about building connections between pieces of information in your mind.
The important words are “building connections”:
We like this explanation: first, because you cannot build something without thinking about it. You have to take intentional action.
Second, that action has to be focused on creating a connection or link, a bit like building a bridge.
To memorize super-effectively you need to keep practicing the 3 R’s until they become daily habits, and consciously or intentionally build connections using some specific memory techniques.
- THE SCIENCE OF FORGETTING
Back in 1885, Hermann Ebbinghaus created the “Forgetting Curve” that demonstrates the concept of how we forget information.
After we learn something, it naturally starts to fade from our memory over time.
We can stop this decline by reviewing or refreshing the information in our mind.
If we review again and again, the strength of the memory is increased, and its “decay” is slowed down.
By strategically spreading out the time between review sessions, you can review the same information less often but still strengthen your knowledge and memory.
4. THE 5 PRINCIPLES OF MEMORIZATION
Things that make sense are easier to remember than those that don’t.
For example, “chicken rice” is easier to remember than “ecir nekcihc”.
If new information is meaningless or confusing, a good memory technique will start by adding meaning to the concept.
Rearranging the letters “ecir nekcihc” to “chicken rice” would certainly do that.
Information needs to be well organized in your mind to be easily accessible.
Think about finding content that you need to access in say, Chapter 7 of your Science book, or a word in a dictionary.
You can easily navigate around and find what you need because there already exists an organized, predictable system.
Association is about connecting or linking new information to knowledge or facts you already have stored in your head.
A simple example is how we remember the difference between ‘”your” and “you’re”.
We think of your pencil because the pencil belongs to you.
We think of how you are feeling because you just said that you’re feeling great now that you can remember things better.
Human memory is predominantly visual. Images are fundamentally more memorable than words.
If you close your eyes and remember some childhood memories – favourite hobbies, your best friends whom you would always meet during recess, or anything at all – you will notice that you use visual images to recall each of those details in your memory.
Visual memory is incredibly powerful.
The final basic principle of learning and memorization is Attention.
Obviously, you can’t remember something if you don’t want to learn it in the first place.
This is where lack of attention comes in.
The biggest reason people “forget” anyone’s name is because they did not want to pay attention when they were first introduced to each other.
If they had been paying attention, they certainly would remember that person’s name!
According to researchers at Harvard University, the best brain foods are the same types of food that also protect your heart and blood vessels.
These include the following:
“Green, leafy vegetables. Leafy greens such as kale, spinach, collards, and broccoli are rich in brain-healthy nutrients like vitamin K, lutein, folate, and beta carotene. Research suggests these plant-based foods may help slow cognitive decline.
Fatty fish. Fatty fish are abundant sources of omega-3 fatty acids, healthy unsaturated fats that have been linked to lower blood levels of beta-amyloid – the protein that forms damaging clumps in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease. Try to eat fish at least twice a week, but choose varieties that are low in mercury, such as salmon, cod, canned light tuna, and pollack. If you are not a fan of fish, ask your doctor about taking an omega-3 supplement, or choose terrestrial omega-3 sources such as flaxseeds, avocados, and walnuts.
Berries. Flavonoids, the natural plant pigments that give berries their brilliant hues, also help improve memory, research shows. A study done by researchers at Harvard’s Brigham and Women’s Hospital found that women who consumed two or more servings of strawberries and blueberries each week delayed memory decline by up to two-and-a-half years.
Walnuts. Nuts are excellent sources of protein and healthy fats, and one type of nut in particular might also improve memory. A 2015 study from UCLA linked higher walnut consumption to improved cognitive test scores. Walnuts are high in a type of omega-3 fatty acid called alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Diets rich in ALA and other omega-3 fatty acids have been linked to lower blood pressure and cleaner arteries. That’s good for both the heart and brain.”
Our goal as students is not just to reach 90 or 100 years of age, but to remain mentally sharp throughout our exams and careers.
We want to keep our brains healthy, reduce the risk of debilitating brain disease, and to say mentally fit throughout our lives.
As the control center of your body, the brain is in charge of keeping our heart beating, and lungs breathing. The brain allows us to move, feel, and think.
Research has shown that these are effective aids that give us much mental stamina and memory boosts:
- FATTY FISH
Fatty fish is an excellent food for the brain.
Fatty fish includes salmon, trout, albacore tuna, herring, and sardines, all of which are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids.
About 60% of our brain is made of fat, and a good portion of that fat in the gray matter within our brains is comprised of omega-3 fatty acids.
Our brains use omega-3 acids to build brain and nerve cells, and these fats are essential for learning, decision-making, emotions, and sharpening memory.
Other additional benefits to our brain include possibly slowing age-related decline, and probably delaying the onset of Alzheimer’s disease.
Some studies have shown that omega-3 deficiency in the diet might lead to learning impairments and depression.
Generally, eating fish – whether the fish is loaded with omega-3 or not – seems to have positive health benefits.
Some research also suggests that people who eat fish regularly tend to have more gray matter in their brains.
Gray matter contains most of the nerve cells that control decision making, memory, and emotion.
Overall, fatty fish is an excellent choice for brain health.
Blueberries and other deeply colored berries deliver anthocyanins, a group of plant compounds with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
Antioxidants guard against both oxidative stress and inflammation, conditions that can contribute to brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases.
Some of the antioxidants in blueberries have been found to accumulate in the brain and help improve communication between brain cells.
According to one review of 11 studies, blueberries could help improve memory and certain cognitive processes in children and older adults.
Try sprinkling them over your breakfast cereal, adding them to a smoothie, or enjoying them fresh, as a simple snack.
Broccoli is packed with powerful plant compounds, including antioxidants. The nutrients found in broccoli may help protect the brain against damage.
Very high in vitamin K, this fat-soluble vitamin is essential for forming sphingolipids, a type of fat that is densely packed into brain cells.
A few studies in older adults have linked a higher vitamin K intake to better memory and cognitive status.
- PUMPKIN SEEDS
Pumpkin seeds contain powerful antioxidants that protect the body and brain from free-radical damage.
They are also an excellent source of magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper – all of which are important for brain health:
Zinc. This element is crucial for nerve signaling. Zinc deficiency has been linked to many neurological conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and Parkinson’s disease.
Magnesium. Magnesium is essential for learning and memory. Low magnesium levels are linked to many neurological conditions that include migraine, depression, and epilepsy.
Copper. Our brain uses copper to help control nerve signals. And when copper levels are out of control, there is a higher risk of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s.
Iron. Iron deficiency is often characterized by brain fog and impaired brain function.
- DARK CHOCOLATE
According to one study involving over 900 people, those who ate chocolate more frequently performed better in a series of mental tasks, including some involving memory, compared with those who rarely ate it.
Chocolate is also a mood booster, according to research.
However, it is still not clear whether that is because of compounds in the chocolate or simply because the tasty flavor makes people happy.
Dark chocolate and cocoa powder are packed with a few brain-boosting compounds, including flavonoids, caffeine, and antioxidants.
Dark chocolate has a 70% or greater cocoa content.
These benefits are not seen with regular milk chocolate, which contains between 10 to 50% cocoa.
Flavonoids are a group of antioxidant plant compounds.
The flavonoids in chocolate gather in the areas of the brain that deal with learning and memory.
Researchers believe that these compounds may enhance memory and also help slow down age-related mental decline.
Research has shown that eating nuts can improve hearth health.
Having a healthy heart is closely linked to having a healthy brain.
A 2014 study found that women who ate nuts regularly over the course of several years had a sharper memory compared with those who did not eat nuts.
Several nutrients in nuts, such as healthy fats, plant compounds, antioxidants, and vitamin E, may explain their beneficial effects on brain health.
Vitamin E protects cells against free-radical damage to help slow mental decline.
While all nuts are good for your brain, walnuts may have an extra edge, since they also deliver anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids.
You can get almost all the vitamin C you need in a day by eating one medium-sized orange.
We can also get high amounts of vitamin C from other foods like bell peppers, guava, kiwi, tomatoes, and strawberries.
Vitamin C is a key factor in preventing mental decline.
According to one study, having higher levels of vitamin C in the blood was associated with improvements in tasks involving focus, memory, attention, and decision speed.
Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that helps fight off the free radicals that can damage brain cells.
Also, vitamin C supports brain health as we age and may protect against conditions like major depressive disorder, anxiety, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer’s disease.
Eggs are a good source of vitamins B6 and B12, folate, choline and several other nutrients linked to brain health.
These nutrients may help slow the progression of mental decline in older adults by lowering levels of homocysteine, an amino acid that could be linked to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.
Also, being deficient in two types of B vitamins – folate and B12 – has been linked to depression, dementia and age-related mental decline.
Vitamin B12 is also involved in synthesizing brain chemicals and regulating sugar levels in the brain.
Choline is an important micronutrient that our body uses to create acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that helps regulate mood and memory.
Eating eggs is an easy way to get choline, given that egg yolks are among the most concentrated sources of this nutrient.